Many areas of the United States, especially the West, currently face water supply issues. The amount of water available in these areas is already limited, and demand will continue to rise as population grows. The Southeast and West (especially the Southwest) have experienced less rain over the past 50 years, as well as increases in the severity and length of droughts.
In the western part of the United States, future projections for less total annual rainfall, less snowpack in the mountains, and earlier snowmelt mean that less water likely will be available during the summer months, when demand is highest. This will make it more difficult for water managers to satisfy water demands throughout the course of the year.
The Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover reduces evaporation by 95%, resulting in greater energy conservation/efficiency, conservation of chemicals, and a sustainable approach to water conservation.
GREEN, ECOLOGICALLY & FISCALLY RESPONSIBLE
HCF/CCF (UNITS) PER ACRE/PER YEAR CAN BE SAVED BY USING THE SATURN DISC RESERVOIR COVER
AMOUNT OF NATION ENERGY USE CONSUMED BY WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS
45 MILLION TONS
AMOUNT OF GREENHOUSE GASES EMITTED ANNUALLY THROUGH THE PRODUCTION OF ENERGY FOR WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS
Water Quality and Safety
Water quality is of the utmost importance as water is essential to human survival. Despite the advances of the 20th century, 25% of the world’s population still lacks access to clean, uncontaminated water. Even though most of the world has access to clean water, there are still many sources of contamination, such as:
- Animal Waste
- Bird Waste (and transmission of Cryptosporitium)
- Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB)
- Chemical Reactions (such as the formation of Bromate)
The Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover Prevents the Following:
- Evaporation - The Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover Reduces evaporation by 95%. This results in substantial energy conservation and augmented energy efficiency. Logic: The Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover reduces evaporation by 95%, thus meaning that much treated water will be conserved. This means that the facility will not need to compensate for the loss in supply to meet demand requirements.
- Contaminant and pathogen propagation - By deterring birds & wildlife, the spread of pathogens such as Cryptosporitium are diminished. Birds are known to transmit H5N1, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Giardia lamblia, microsporidia*, Salmonella, Campylobacter & Mycobacterium spp. Birds are deterred by the matte black light-absorbing color. Also, since view of the water is obstructed, animals do not have access and therefore, contamination through feces and saliva is avoided, resulting in cleaner, purer water.
- Algal Blooms – Autotrophic microalgae are prevented from blooming as they rely on photosynthesis which is prevented by obscuring the sunlight. There are over 300 species of blooming algae, 25% of which are toxic and are a substantial threat to water safely. An example of a harmful algal bloom is Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae)
- Chemical Reactions – Chemical reactions that are contingent on sunlight are prevented due to the concealment of the sunlight. An example of a chemical reaction is when naturally occurring Bromide is combined with Chlorine (added during the treatment process) which react after exposure to sunlight to produce Bromate, a known carcinogen.
Energy is the number one cost for drinking water systems. It accounts for up to 40% of a facility’s operating cost. This is expected to increase 20% in the next 15 years.
The Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover Saves Electricity By:
- Reducing evaporation by 95%, thus meaning that much treated water will be saved. This means that the facility will not have to compensate for the loss in supply.
- Due to a much lower rate of evaporation, efficiency is maximized, whereby reducing waste.
"Water is needed to generate energy. Energy is needed to deliver water. Both resources are limiting the other—and both may be running short."
—Michael Webber, Scientific American, October 2008
- By decreasing evaporation, the Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover reduces the amount of evaporation by 95% which saves over 2,500 units per acre/per year. (unit=748.5 Gallons)
- By inhibiting the growth of autotrophic algae, and preventing the formation of Bromate, the Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover prevents water systems from having to drain their reservoirs or invest in treatments such as adding Copper to combat algae.
- The Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover is fully RECYCLABLE and REUSABLE! Depending on the condition of the floats, they can be 100% recycled. They can also be used in short-term applications since the floats are easily removable and transportable.
- By preventing the escape of gases, the Saturn Disc Reservoir Cover helps build a GREENER, more sustainable tomorrow.
Inhibiting the Growth of Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB)
Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) represent a substantial threat to water safety which, in some cases, necessitated the drainage of the entire tanks or lagoon.
There are about 300 algal species that bloom, 25% of which are toxic. An example of a harmful algal bloom is Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae).
Nearly all harmful algae blooms are autotrophic which means that they rely on photosynthesis to survive. By covering the surface of the water surface, the algae dies.
Canal CoveringThe Saturn Disk can also be used to cover distribution canals.
Cryptosporidium oocysts are common… and can persist for months in this environment. The dose that can infect humans is low, and a number of waterborne disease outbreaks caused by this protozoan have occurred in the United States, most notably in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where an estimated 400,000 people became ill in 1993. Otherwise healthy people recover within several weeks after becoming ill, but illness may persist and contribute to death in those whose immune systems have been seriously weakened. Drugs effective in preventing or controlling this disease are not yet available. The public health concern is worsened by the resistance of Cryptosporidium to commonly used water disinfection practices such as chlorination. Monitoring for this organism in water is currently difficult and expensive. EPA believes that there is sufficient information to conclude that Cryptosporidium may cause a health problem and occurs in public water supplies at levels that may pose a risk to human health.
Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB)
In general, most harmful algal blooms are caused by plants (photosynthetic organisms) that form the "base" of the food chain. These include both microscopic species of algae, referred to scientifically as phytoplankton and the microphytobenthos, as well as the larger macroalgae. A bloom occurs when an alga rapidly increases in numbers to the extent that it dominates the local planktonic or benthic community. Such high abundance can result from explosive growth, caused, for example, by a metabolic response to a particular stimulus (e.g., nutrients or some environmental condition like a change in water temperature), or from the physical concentration of a species in a certain area due to local patterns in water circulation. The similarity of these alga and heterotrophs often makes it difficult to identify the precise cause of a harmful algal bloom, and to predict its impact on the affected ecosystem.
Unique Benefits for Reservoirs
- Prevents fluid loss due to evaporation
- Improves water quality by eliminating contamination
- Reduces the need for chemicals/treatment
- Prevents pollution and contamination
- Prevents algal blooms due to blocked sunlight
- Reduces odors
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